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Invasion of Canada, 1775

Excerpt from "The History of Our Country"
by Edward S. Ellis, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1895

When the American colonies were fighting the battles of England, Canada belonged to France, and several invasions were made, the decisive campaign being fought on the heights above Quebec. Now that Canada belonged to Great Britain, the Americans believed than an effective blow could be struck by another invasion of the country. Indeed, this has been a favorite strategic measure, whenever our country has been at war with Great Britain, though its results have not always been gratifying to American valor. The colonies were hopeful that Canada would join them in a struggle for independence. An invitation was sent by Congress across the border, urging the people to make common cause with us; but the response was not encouraging, and Sir Guy Carleton1, the Governor, declared martial law in Canada, sought the alliance of the Indian tribes, and prepared to invade New York to recover the lake posts that had been seized (the fortresses of Ticonderoga and Crown Point, on Lake Champlain). Congress, in June, 1775, decided to undertake the conquest of Canada, which seemed an easy task, as it might have been had the invasion been prompt; but valuable time was frittered away.

Ethan Allen was urgent for the movement as soon as Ticonderoga2 and Crown Point3 had been taken, arid not doubting that it would be made, he did not wait for formal authority. A company of his Green Mountain Boys captured Skenesborough (now Whitehall), at the head of Lake Champlain, with a number of prisoners, a schooner, and several smaller boats. Benedict Arnold manned the schooner, equipped it with guns from Ticonderoga, and with the smaller boats sailed up the lake to attack the fort at St. John. After destroying several vessels and taking a number of prisoners, he set out to return to Ticonderoga. Meeting Allen, the two held a consultation, and Allen pushed on to occupy the captured fort, but withdrew before the approach of a superior force. Then followed a fatal delay by Congress before ordering the invasion of Canada.

General Schuyler reached Ticonderoga on the 18th of July, and found mat-ters there in great confusion. Colonel Benedict Arnold claimed command, by virtue of his commission from the Provincial Congress of Massachusetts, and many of the Green Mountain Boys were so angered with him that they had gone home. Arnold was quarrelsome, overbearing, and heartily disliked, although his military skill and bravery are admitted. Complaint was made to the body that had commissioned him, and a committee sent to Ticonderoga to inquire into matters ordered Arnold to submit to Colonel Hinman, then in command, or return to Massachusetts. Arnold, at this, was thrown into a fury, and swearing that he would be second to no man, threw up his commission and set off to Cambridge to lay his grievances before Washington.

Meanwhile, General Schuyler learned that there were less than a thousand British regulars in Canada, that the citizenry were supposed to be friendly towards the Americans, and that no more favorable time was likely to occur for the invasion of the colony. He therefore devoted his energies to organizing and drilling the soldiers at Ticonderoga with the view to invasion, but the task was a discouraging one. The men were mutinous and tried him sorely, so much so that the campaign was thereby seriously marred. Another cause of grave anxiety was the Indians. They had been tampered with by the English. Sir William Johnson, the British agent, was already winning over the powerful Six Nations and preparing for active measures against the Americans. Congress nominated Schuyler as head of the Indian Commission, and, to meet the responsible duties thus thrown upon him, he placed General Richard Montgomery in command of the expedition for the invasion of Canada. Montgomery arrived at Ticonderoga on the 17th of August, and, with about a thousand men, proceeded to Isle La Motte, to prevent a number of vessels then building on the Sorel River, from entering Lake Champlain. Schuyler joined him early in September, but while in front of the fort at St. John he was prostrated by sickness and obliged to return to Ticonderoga, where he did the best of service by forwarding troops and supplies to Montgomery, who at once invested St. John. The garrison was a strong one and made a brave defense; but on November 2, it was forced to surrender.

While the siege was in progress, Colonel Ethan Allen with a hundred recruits crossed the St. Lawrence to attack Montreal, but was defeated and made prisoner, with all his men4. Having taken St. John, Montgomery now moved against Montreal. Carleton knew that he could not hold the fort against a determined attack, and therefore made ready to flee to Quebec with his garrison. Montgomery captured the flotilla bearing the garrison at the mouth of the Sorel, but Carleton, by a secret flight at night, escaped to Quebec. Montgomery entered Montreal on the 13th of November, and obtained a quantity of valuable supplies for his men. All that remained to secure the conquest of Canada was to take Quebec, and the brave Montgomery now addressed himself to that task. It will be remembered that Arnold had ridden off in anger to Washington, at Cambridge, with his complaint of ill-treatment at Ticonderoga. No one understood Arnold better than the Commander-in-Chief, and he commissioned him Colonel in the Continental Army and placed him in command of eleven hundred troops selected from those at Cambridge, to cooperate with Montgomery in the conquest of Canada. Washington was pressing the siege of Boston and could ill spare the troops; but he understood the importance of making the invasion of Canada successful. Arnold and his men sailed from Newburyport, about the middle of September, for a point on the Kennebec, opposite the present city of Augusta, Maine. The country was an unbroken solitude, with only a few Indians living here and there in the vast stretches of forest. The ascent of the river was begun by means of bateaux, but soon they reached falls and rapids, where it was necessary to take the boats and supplies around to the navigable stream above. The troops carried their provisions on their backs, and oxen drew the boats. The men labored through the swift current until a point was reached where they left the river, and pushed through dense forests and swamps to Dead River, on the watershed between the St. Lawrence and the Atlantic, along which they advanced until confronted by a high snowcapped mountain. At the base of this mountain, late in October, the troops went into camp. The weather was cold and every day it grew colder. The winters being severe in that latitude, the prospect before the invaders was a very gloomy one. Many of the men had deserted, while sickness was on the increase. It was thirty miles to the nearest tributary of the St. Lawrence, down which Arnold had to voyage to Quebec. Before the march began, a cold driving rain set in. The Dead River became a roaring torrent, filled with rushing trees and limbs, which overturned a number of the bateaux, and lost to the expedition so much provisions that the food saved was not sufficient to last a fortnight. Matters now assumed so grave an aspect that Arnold held a conference with his officers, at which it was decided to send the sick to Norridgewock, where Colonel Enos was with the rear division. Enos was ordered to hurry forward with provisions for fifteen days5.

It would be hard to picture a more dismal, dispiriting, and depressing situation than that of Arnold and his troops. The driving rain changed to snow, the cold increased, and ice formed continually: All the signs pointed to an early and rigorous winter, but the men resolutely pressed on. Often the only way by which the force could make headway against the current was by wading in the freezing water, waist deep, and pushing the boats in front of them. At last, after untold suffering and labor, they arrived at Lake Megantic and encamped on its bank, while Arnold with some fifty men proceeded down the Chaudiere to the nearest French settlement for provisions for his command. On the way they met with a stirring experience. They knew nothing about the river, and had hardly launched their bateaux when the current whirled them about with such violence that the men were helpless. Plunging among the boiling rapids, three of the boats were overturned and shattered to fragments. The others, having moored in more peaceful water, were able to save the men thus flung into the stream.

Now that the troops paused for rest, they heard a steady deep roar coming from a point a short way below them. They set out to learn what it meant, and to their astonishment found a high cataract over which all would have plunged to certain death but for the mishap which had checked them and which, therefore, proved a blessing in disguise. Embarking again, they continued their way down the angry stream, past rapids and falls, until they reached Sertigan, where food was obtained and sent back by Indians to the main command, which was in sore need of it. They had lost all their boats and provisions, had eaten their last dog some days before, and were now living on roots. Refreshed by the food brought to them, the army resumed its march towards the St. Lawrence.

By this time, severe weather had fully come. In the midst of a furious snow-storm, the troops appeared like so many spectres, on the heights of Point Levis, opposite Quebec. The town was thrown into a panic. The drums beat to arms, and the garrison hastily prepared to meet the attack, which they believed would be made without delay. Arnold was confident that a majority of the people in the town were so friendly to the Americans that they would make common cause with them as soon as they appeared before it. He was eager to cross the river, but the elements prevented. A storm of sleet held the Americans idle for four days. On the night of the 13th, over five hundred men crossed the St. Lawrence in canoes, and landing at Wolfe's Cove, climbed up the ravine, and at daylight stood in battle array on the Heights of Abraham, where Wolfe had attacked Montcalm sixteen years before6.

The Americans advanced towards the two gates opening upon the plain, and, halting, cheered vigorously, believing that the regulars would march out to attack them, when the citizens would rise and the invaders could rush in and take possession of the city. But the Commandant was too prudent to incur any risk like that. He remained at his post, and if the people had any intention of rising, they were restrained through fear of the garrison. Arnold demanded the surrender of the city and issued several proclamations, all of which were treated with contempt. Then alarming news reached him. Carleton was descending the St. Lawrence with a large force of Indians and Canadians, and the garrison were preparing to march out and assail him with field pieces. Arnold had no cannon, so he retreated up the river to Point aux Trembles and there waited instructions from Montgomery.

That gallant officer had meanwhile not been idle. He had placed garrisons in the forts at St. John and at Chambly, and, leaving Montreal in charge of General Wooster, he made ready to march against Quebec. But the chief difficulty Montgomery experienced was to hold his men to their work. The enlistment terms of nearly all expired on the 1st of December, and they were already weary of their task. The soldiers refused to re-enlist, and day by day the force dwindled, while the reinforcements so urgently called for by him and Schuyler were not furnished by Congress. Montgomery made the best arrangement possible with the men that were willing to accompany him, so, leaving Montreal late in November, he joined Arnold at Point aux Trembles, on the 3rd of December, and assumed at once command of the united troops. He brought with him a quantity of clothing, which was sorely needed by the suffering invaders, now less than a thousand in number.

It seemed a grim farce for this weak force to lay siege to Quebec, and we must admire the pluck displayed by the Americans. They appeared before the town on the 5th of December, and the following morning Montgomery summoned Carleton to surrender. The flag of truce was fired upon, whereupon the angered Montgomery sent a threatening notification to the officer who had thus violated the rules of civilized warfare. Carleton refused to hold intercourse with his assailant, and the latter made ready for the assault.

The weather was intensely cold, and the ground under the deep snow was frozen like flint. Spade and pickaxe were useless, so Montgomery filled large baskets with snow, poured water upon this and then allowed it to freeze. In a short time he thus erected a gleaming embankment, several feet high, upon which he placed a battery of six twelve-pounders and two howitzers. The shells from the several mortars which fell in the Lower Town set a number of buildings on fire. Then the cannon opened on the ice battery and sent the fragments flying. The crystal walls were speedily demolished, and the American battery was forced to withdraw. By this time, Montgomery saw that his cannon could make no impression on the massive stone walls, and other means, he concluded, must be devised for capturing the city. His force was so weak that he decided to wait for reinforcements, but two weeks passed and not a solitary soldier appeared. The action of Congress was slow, and the anxious Schuyler had no money with which to obtain either men or supplies. He even used his own personal credit, but could not procure any recruits. Montgomery was thus left to help himself the best way he could.

That officer had a task on his hands before which the bravest leader would have quailed. In a few days the terms of enlistment of the remainder of his men would expire, and there was little hope of holding them longer. Snow fell almost continuously, and then small-pox broke out and raged with fatal virulence. As if this were not enough, Arnold quarreled with his officers, who became so incensed against him that they told Montgomery they would leave the service unless they were placed under another commander. Montgomery called all his tact and wisdom into play, and, by his kind, firm words to Arnold and his appeals to the patriotism of the others, healed their differences. It. was a dismal Christmas Which came to the suffering troops, hundreds of miles from home, in a hostile country, shivering with cold and suffering with hunger, but to their credit be it said they did not shrink from their duty.

A council of war was held, at which it was decided that two attacks should be made upon the city at the same time, one under the command of Montgomery, and the other under the leadership of Arnold. While Montgomery was to effect the capture of the Cape Diamond bastion, on the highest point of the promontory, Arnold was to attack the Lower Town and burn the British stockade close by the river. No date was fixed, but it was agreed that the assault should be made on the first stormy night, which was certain to come very soon. Another snow-storm set in on the afternoon of December 30, and it was resolved that the attempt should be made that night. Desertion and sickness had reduced Montgomery's force to about seven hundred men, but he was still as resolute as ever. He energetically completed his plans, and, in the cold and darkness and storm, at two o'clock on the morning of the last day of the year, the troops were in motion.

Colonel Livingston was to make a feint against the St. Louis Gate and set it on fire, while Major Brown was to threaten the ramparts of Cape Diamond. Arnold was to lead three hundred and fifty men to attack and set fire to the works at St. Roque, and Montgomery, with the remaining troops, was to advance below Cape Diamond, carry the defenses at the base of the citadel, and then push forward and join Arnold. If successful, this would give the assailants possession of the Lower Town, after which they would unite, destroy Prescott Gate, and dash into the city. The plan was good and well matured, and there is little doubt that it would have met with success, had not a deserter revealed the scheme to Carleton, who caused his soldiers to sleep that night on their arms.

The darkness was so dense that it was necessary for the Americans to adopt some means of recognizing each other. To do this, a piece of white paper was fastened in front of each man's cap. In the face of the blinding sleet and hail, Montgomery led his men along the icy path at the foot of the acclivity until they reached a block-house below Cape Diamond. There was no sign of life there, and, believing that the garrison were unprepared, the impatient leader shouted to his men to follow him. But the traitor from the American ranks had done his work too well. A strong company were on the watch, with weapons ready, and the moment Montgomery's voice rang out in the storm and darkness, they opened fire with grape-shot. In an instant Montgomery, two officers, and ten men were killed7. The remainder hurriedly retreated to Wolfe's Cove and made no further effort to reach the gate.

Arnold at this time was fighting his way through snow-drifts on the other side of the town, which was in a turmoil. The bells were ringing, and drums were beating to arms, while above the din and tumult sounded the boom of cannon. Arnold, with the dauntless bravery for which he was noted, pushed on, forced by the circumstances we have already explained to lead his men in single file. It was found impossible to drag cannon with them, and they were therefore left behind. The fighting had hardly begun, when Arnold received a severe wound in the leg and had to be carried to the rear. The gallant Morgan then took command, and after desperate work, captured two batteries from the enemy. He was about to attack Prescott Gate, when the depressing news reached him that the troops stationed near one of the other gates had been made prisoners. Despite the most determined fighting, and after severe loss, Morgan was compelled to surrender with four hundred troops. A force of reserves had meanwhile retreated and were soon joined by others who escaped.

It would seem that this ought to have been the end of the ill-starred invasion of Canada, marked as it was by disaster almost from the beginning. But the remnants of the expeditionary force stayed behind until the following spring. By that time the folly of the whole expedition became so apparent that it was decided to leave the country. Before the sick could be removed, the English, who had been reinforced, sallied out from the gates and scattered the fugitive Americans in confusion. Carleton could feel only sympathy for his enemies. He knew their wretched plight, and humanely ordered troops to search through the woods for the wounded and helpless. All that could be found were brought in and treated kindly. Those that needed aid were sent to the hospital and told that they were at liberty to go to their homes, as soon as they felt strong enough to do so. Finally, the remnant of the shattered and dispirited army proceeded to the shelter of Crown Point, many of them dying on the way thither. Thus ends the sad story of the unfortunate Canadian invasion of 1775.

The Diary of Samuel Barney

The following extracts were taken from the diary in the possession of Professor Samuel Eben Barney Jr. of Sheffield Scientific School, Yale University, New Haven, Conn. [#3190, pp.545-546, Genealogy of the Barney Family in America]. The Samuel Barney referred to was #223 Samuel6 Barney, son of Jacob5 and Silence (Blake) Barney. He was born at Taunton, Mass. in 1753; died July 17, 1805 at New Haven, Conn. He married, August 20, 1778 at New Haven, Sarah Bassett, born at South Haven, Conn. Feb. 8, 1756; died at New Haven Dec. 7, 1845, daughter of Ebenezer and Susannah (White) Bassett of New Haven. According to the Genealogy of the Barney Family in America, pp. 88-89: Samuel Barney enlisted as a Private June 5, 1775 and served in Capt. Caleb Trowbridge's 5th Co., Col. David Woodster's Connecticut Regiment during the Siege of Boston. He was discharged September 1, 1775, and on September 6th he enlisted in Capt. Oliver Hackett's Co. and marched in Col. Benedict Arnold's expedition to Quebec. He served in the Battle of Quebec, is on the muster roll for December 31, 1775.

He served until July 20, 1776. In March 1779 he sailed on a Privateer ship under Capt. Thomas Trowbridge bound for the West Indies. On the fourth day out the ship was taken by the British and its crew held on the "Jersey Prison Ship" in New York. He was exchanged in August 1779.

Samuel Barney's Pension Record No. 17233 shows that a pension was granted to Samuel Barney residing in New Haven. His widow, Sarah (Bassett) was allowed a pension on her application executed December 2, 1837, while a resident of New Haven, aged 80 years. She is recorded as a pensioner in 1840, residing with her daughter Julia (Barney) Gorham at New Haven. Samuel Barney's military record has been accepted by the D.A.R.

He died at New Haven on July 17, 1805; administration of his estate was granted to his widow Sarah and son Samuel Barney Jr.


My great grandfather, Samuel Barney, the writer of the following diary, left New Haven to join the Colonial troops at Cambridge soon after the Battle of Lexington. Whether he was in the original company which marched to Massachusetts with Arnold I am not quite sure. He may have followed later. At any rate, he was in Cambridge previous to September 1775 and may have been among the one thousand Connecticut troops who fought in the Battle of Bunker Hill in the June previous, under General Putnam.

In this connection, the account of an incident taking place that July in Cambridge may well interest Connecticut people. "About the 2Oth of July the declaration of the Continental Congress setting forth their reasons for taking up arms was proclaimed at the head of several divisions. Putnam had ordered his divi-sion to be paraded on Prospect Hill to listen to the reading of the declaration. As soon as the last words were pro-nounced, the Connecticut troops all shouted three times as with one voice, the word "Amen." Scarcely had the echoes died when the signal gun was fired from the fort and the new standard that had just arrived from Connecticut unfurled itself in the breeze, exhibiting on one side in large golden letters: "An appeal to Heaven," and on the other the armorial bearings of Connecticut."

General Washington, while at Cambridge, became persuaded of the wisdom of invading Canada and conceived the idea of detaching a body of troops from headquarters to cross the wilderness of Maine to reach Quebec. (Hollister's "History of Connecticut.") These troops were to co-operate with those under the command of General Montgomery who were proceeding to Canada by way of Lake Champlain.

The expedition consisted of eleven hundred men, commanded by Colonel Arnold, aided by Colonels Green and Enos and Majors Meigs and Bigelow. They embarked at Newburyport on board ten transports, and on September 20th they entered the Kennebec River. Two hundred batteaux had been built for use on the river. They frequently were compelled, because of rapids, fallen trees, etc., to carry their batteaux and baggage until they came to a part of the river that was navigable. Some times they could proceed only from three to seven miles a day. On leaving the river they encountered almost interminable forests, mountains and swamps. For thirty-one days they marched through an uninhabited wilderness.

Fiske says, in "The American Revolution," "The very difficulty of the scheme commended it to the romantic and buoyant temper of Benedict Arnold. The enterprise was one to call for all his persistent daring and fertile resource. It was an amphibious Journey as his men now rowed their boats with difficulty against the strong swift current of the Kennebec and now carrying boats and oars on their shoulders forced their way through the tangled undergrowth of the primeval forests. Their shoes were out to pieces by sharp stones and their clothes torn to shreds by thorns and briers. Their food gave out and though some small game was shot their hunger became such that they devoured their dogs. When they reached the head of the Chaudi(re River after this terrible march of thirty-three days, two hundred of their number had succumbed to starvation, cold and fatigue, while two hundred more had given out and returned to Massachusetts, carrying with them such of the sick and disabled as they could save."

The garrison of Quebec at this time consisted of one hundred and seventy regulars under Colonel Maclean and about eight hundred militia. The Americans fortified their position by building batteries of snow and ice. Their artillery proved inadequate, however, and they resolved to storm the city. Fiske described it thus: "On the last day of 1775 England came within an ace of losing Quebec. At two o'clock in the morning, in a blinding snow storm, Montgomery and Arnold began each a furious attacks at opposite sides of the town; and aided by the surprise each came near carrying his point. Montgomery had almost forced his way in when he fell dead, pierced by three bullets; and this so chilled the enthusiasm of his men that they flagged. Arnold on his side was severely wounded and carried from the field; but the indomitable Morgan took his place and his company stormed the battery opposed to them and fought their way far into the town. Had the attack on the other side been kept up with equal vigor, Quebec must have fallen."

The following diary was written in a small note book now in the possession of my brother, Professor Samuel E. Barney of Yale University. A photographic copy has also been made of the pages and by means of a magnifying glass the entries have been carefully read and transcribed. All the dates have been verified (and all are correct) also names of towns, rivers, etc. A few very brief entries have been omitted, as adding nothing to the interest, but, as may be seen, not even illness deterred the writer from making an entry in his much valued diary each day.

The diary ends abruptly but of necessity after the entry for January 11, 1776, as the book was filled and probably no other was to be had. History says that these American troops, with Arnold, remained throughout the winter in the neighborhood of Quebec, and in the following June retreated to Crown Point, New York. The Declaration of Independence was signed that following July, and in the end of August took place the Battle of Long Island. A family tradition says that Samuel Barney, the writer of this diary, was taken prisoner at the Battle of Long Island and kept on board the famous (or infamous) prison ship, the Jersey. From this frightful prison, he, by some chance, escaped and was found by a Long Island farmer wandering half-naked in a field. The good farmer nursed him and restored him to health. He then returned to his family. In 1785 License was given him "to lay timber, stone and lime near the Church in Church Street (Trinity's first building) such quantities and for such term of time as may be necessary for the Building a House which said Barney is about to erect on his land adjoining to the Church." There he lived in peace until 1804, when he died and was buried in the famous old Grove Street Cemetery in New Haven. Frances Bishop Barney, 36 Trumbull St., New Haven, January 1921 [She was b. July 26, 1871; #3192, GBFA]

Diary of Samuel Barney of New Haven, 1775-1776

September the 16th, 1775. Had this Book of one Mr. Jones of Newbury Porte. This Book cost nine coppers. Samuel Barney.


Wrote by me, Samuel Barney.


Roxbury, September the 6th, 1775. Listed to go to Quebeck. Isaac George, Gabriel Hotchkiss, Samuel Barney, John Wise, Elijah Mix, George Blakeslee, Silas Ransome, Sharmen Shattuck, Joseph _____, Daniel Tod, Freemam Tod, Allen Tod, Benjamin Warner, Isaac Knap, Samuel Barnes.

The 8th day went to Cambridge.

September the 9th was 'viewed.

September the 10th there was five Raglers brought to Cambridge Garde House from Roxbury.

September Tuesday the l3th, 1775. Isaac George, Gabriel Hotchkiss, John Wise and I washed at the Inn at Cambridge where Jonathan Browne lives. Marched from Cambridge to Mistick Aboute 3 or 4 miles and next morning we marched aboute 3 or 4 miles to Malden and went to breakfast at William Watts, and then went on to Newt's tavern in Linn, whitch is five miles, where we got some grog and then went on to Howes tavern in Danwitch which is seven miles, and to the Meting House is 2 miles and aboute 1 and a half to Banjamin Daelins in Danvers and left Salem on the write hand.

September the 14th, 1775. Went on seven miles to Beverley and to Wenham Meting Rouse is three miles and to Ipswitch to Lanlord John Browne is two miles and to Lanlord Stainers is 5 miles.

September the 16th, Saterday. Got to Nubury Porte whitch is Seven miles more.

Sunday the 17th. I went to Meting to the Church.

Monday, September the 18th, 1775. Slept at Abraham Simmons and went on bord the Sloop Britania.

Tuesday, Sept. the 10th. Ate a brekfurst of Codfish and Rum and got under way about six o'clock in the morning and Stered About Est and Southe. In the After Noone sailed by the Iland of _____ and was by Piscatqua lite house and by the Iland of Sholes Aboute three o'clock, Boon Iland About Est and corse was Northest.

September, Wednesday the 20th. Past by the Iland of Seguin. Our corse was North Est by that Iland. This morning Entered the River's mouth and the pilet bote cum off. The River runs Aboute North Westerly. Came to ancor about one o'clock. This date ate a Dinner of Herings and then went up to a Spring and got sum water and made some grog and Drinkt it with a good Stomick. From Seguin to where we came to ancor is 30 miles where George and I got sum beere add made sum flip. About Aight o'clock we got under way and Road up the River five miles and then cum to and staid all night.

September, Thursday the 21st. This morning I Rose wall and got under way Aboute seven o'clock. This morning had a good brekfurst of Chaklet and went up the River three miles and on to Broxby. Captain Christian got ashore at Gardners Town Aboute one o'clock. From Newbury Porte to Gardners Town was two hundred miles. The people say that this town is fifty five miles from Quebeck.

September, Friday the 22nd, 1775. This morning I Rose wall but very cold, but last night we had a dance and last Night there was a _______ Brig tuched heare. This morning was whipt a man at Gardners Town, Isaac George and I went up in a batto eight miles and we beat Enny one that there was, but I blistered my hands very bad.

September, Saterday the 23rd. This morning I rose wall but lay very hard upon the barrils and it is very cold. Isaac George and I went up the River three miles to Fort Western and there we landed our barrils and then went down Again and brote up al our things aboute five o'clock at night and it was very cold.

September, Sunday the 24th. This morning I rose wall and all the rest of our mess and George Blakesle too. Last Night was shot a man, one Bishop, and is like to Dye. This day passed off with mending Close and a hard shower of Rain and we was in our tent. Bishop died to-day about five o'clock in the afternoon.

September, Munday the 25th. This morning I rose wall and went to Prairs and Sum Compiny martched off. This day was whipt one James Culverson ten stripes for taking A thurty shilling bit to change and never Returned it again to one Biggs. This day had a good dinner of fish. This Culverson was drummed out of the Campe. This day Reuben Bishop was buried of Captain Williams Company.

September, Tuesday the 26th. This morning I Rose not very wall. A Rainy Day, and in the afternoon aboute three o'clock one James McCormack was to be hung and stud upon the scafild and was repreived that once.

September, Wednesday the 27th. This morning I Rose wall and went to Prayrs. John Love was whipt thurty nine stripes for Steling. Aboute noon was whipt a Sailor for Steling, twenty stripes. Set out in the battos and went up the River five miles and then cum to and staid all night.

September, Thursday the 28th, 1775. I Rose Wall and Ate Chaklit for brekfurst. Loded our battos and went up Aboute two miles and came to falls, Samuel Barns, John Wise and I. From the falls to Versellborough is five miles, where we found a man and drinkt some grog and ate a dinner of Codfish, and to the next falls is one mile and a half ----- Went up the river aboute 8 miles and cum to and staid all night. Next morning went up to a man's house and got sum milk. There is good land here.

Friday, September the 29th. This morning I Rose wall but lay very cold and Isaac George, Gabriel Hotchkiss, and I went in the battoos and went up the River five miles to Forte Halifax and had Damd bad work to git there, and had Damd bad bote. We got up to Forte Halifax to the first carrying plaice and we carried our bote and then Pitcht our tent and made a large fire and I lay Down by it and I slept wall.

Saturday, September the 30th. This morning I Rose wall and got some Chaklet and Herrings, and then we loded our batto and Barns, Wise and Warner went in them aboute a mile and camee to bad falls that lasted aboute a quarter of a mile, and then went aboute two miles and came to Three Mile Falls that were very bad. Then George Hotchkiss and I went to a house and had an ox killed and then martched through the woods and came to the Camping ground. Then we had to go back a mile and Pitched our tents and Slept.

October, Sunday the 1st. This morning I Rose wall and went to the River 13 miles. Had some bad falls and the rest was good. This day, George, Barns and I has cum to a good place.

October, Monday the 2nd. This morning I Rose wall and it is likt to Rain. George, Barns and I goes in the bote. Went up the river one mile and a half, all bad falls, and then came to a carry where we had to carry our bote fifty rods and set out again. Had good water three miles and then stopt. Slept very well last night.

October, Tues-day the 3rd, 1775. This morning I Rose wall. George, Barns and I in the batto set out and had sum very good water and then had very bad falls and had a leky bote. Came up the river 8 miles and then came to a carrying place where we had to carry one mile and a half. (The name of this place is M_____.)

October, Wednesday the 4th, 1775. This morning I Rose wall but George aint. The name of this place is Norrigewock. Today we carried our bote over this carrying place. No more Inglish inhabitance upon this River after this, and then cum to the Indians.

October, Thursday the 5th. This morning I Rose wall and tarried here at the carrying place all this day and mended a jacket. Had a wheat pudding for Diner. Loded our batto aboute five o'clock and went up the river one mile and stopt, Barns, Hotchkiss and I. George is sick.

Friday, October the 6th, 1775. This morning I Rose wall and slept. Had som poor Chaklet for brekfurst. In the afternoon we set out and went aboute three miles, Barns, George anal Wise, for I was sick. The best land that ever I see. I feall better. I slept but little.

Saterday, October the 7th, 1775. I Rose this morning but felt very poorly, but GEORGE, Barnes and I went in the bote and went twelve miles to the carrying place where we carried our things seventy Rods. Then we loded our botes and went aboute one mile and a half, but I felt poorly all day and all night, but I stole porke and Warner stole sum bread.

Sunday, October the 8th, 1775. This morning being very rainy, I lay very late, for I was poorly and we did not move from heare this day. We staid hears all day and did not feel a bit wall....... and now Hotchkiss is making brade.

Munday, October the 9th, 1775. This morning I Rose a little bit better than I have been. This morning clear and cold and very windy and Wise, Warner and Hotchkiss got into the batto and there fell a storm. Then Barns and Hotchkiss went in aboute seven miles and very bad going it was.

Tuesday, October the 10th. This morning I Rose wall, and Hotchkiss, Warner and I was in the bote and went up the River five miles and a very hard way, and then came to the carrying place whitch is three miles and a quarter by the Chane. William E...... and William Todd and Amasa Allen went home the sixth day of October.

Wednesday, October the 11th. This morning I Rose wall but George is poorly yet. We ate a Chaklet for brekfurst without sugar, and carried over ten battos. Then we carried a barrel of flour and got Amos Acrost and left it, and then we laid by all night and then in the morning, we carried it up, then went back.

Thursday, October the 12th. This morning I Rose up and carried over some pork and them came back again and carried over the MAJOR's bote and lanched them all into Troute Pond, Went over the other side and pitched our tents.

Friday, October the 13th. This morning I Rose wall and carried our things over this Place Whitch is two miles. The first pond is one mile and the next is two miles where we incampt. James Taylor, Ekobud _____ and Hail came into our mess. Today it snowd.

Saterday, October the 14th. This morning I Rose wall and we carried our things over this place, whitch is two miles and went into the Pond which is two, across where we pitched our tents. I had a lame shoulder.

Sunday, October the 15th, 1775. This morning I Rose wall and we carried our things to a stow whitch is two miles, and it rained some but we got a good fire tonight and feel wall.

Munday, October the 16th, 1775. This morning I Rose wall and carried our provisions one mile and a quarter and drived our botes into the crick which leads to Ded River, and went up the River two miles. Wise and I pitched our tent and had some _____ for supper and felt wall.

Tuesday, October the 17th, 1775. This morning I Rose wall and got same brekfurst and shaved and hove away the shoes that Hill made me. We don't move from hear today. We feal wall and have cleaned our guns today.

Wednesday, October the 18th. This morning I Rose wall, It is cold. and pleasant and there is twenty men agoing to go back aboute two miles after fresh beef. Started late, but went up the River ten miles and a half and went by an Ingen hut where the Ingen spys was kept and overtook two other Companies and then stopt. Wise, Hail and I went in the Bote, good land hear. We went six miles and had a carrying place ahoute five rods and the rest a good River.

Thursday, October the 19th. This morning I Rose wall and it raned very hard heare. We moved in the afternoon and went up the River Five miles and had sum bad falls.

Friday, October the 20th. This morning I Rose wall and it raned very hard, but we moved and had our Allowance shortened from three quarters of a pound of pork to half a pound and a finel pint of flour, and we went up thc River five miles and had a carrying place whitch was 15 Rods and then went up the River ten miles more. Raned all day. Wise, _____ and I in the botes. I have a bad bile and a sore shoulder. We has sum bad falls. The major's bote was cverset.

Saterday, October the 21st. This morning I Rose wall but it raned very hard and we went up the River fore miles andd then had a carrying place whitch was 40 Rods, then went up the River two miles and then had another whitch was 50 Rods and then stopt. It raned very hard.

Sunday, October the 22nd. This moaning I Rose wall, but lame with a bile. This morning it did not hold up and we went up the River one mile and a half and had a carrying place of 80 Rods, and then went up the River 100 Rods and came to another carrying place and stopt. WERE held up all the way by bushes, Taylor, Wise and I, the major and Captain got lost, but they found us in the night.

Munday, October the 23rd. I Rose wall and stood garde, we went up the RIVER. We carried our things over this place whitch is 100 Rods, and then we went up the River Six miles and had many bad falls, and George's bote was overset.

Tuesday, October the 24th, 1775. This morning arose wall. _______ Ransome's Division was sent forward and two soldiers were sent back. Then we all set out and went up the River three miles and it snode. Barns _____ and I in the bote. We had a good place.

Wednesday, October the 25th. This morning I Rose wall and went up the River 4 miles and had a carrying place 10 Rods and then went up the RIVER 100 Rods and had another about 8 rods and went up the River two miles and had very bad way. Then another carrying place and carried over that whitch is a quarter of a mile and then stopt. Barns, Swartz and I in a bote.

Thursday, October the 26th. This morning I Rose wall and went up the River aboute half a mile and then went into a Pond and then had two more Ponds and had a carrying place about 15 rods. We went twelve miles today, Marshall, Swartz and I.

Friday, October the 27th. This momning I Rose wall and slep on the top of a mountain and carried the botes into a Pond whitch is a mile, and then crossed the Pond. Then had another carrying place whitch is three quarters of a mile and then went into Another Pond, whitch carried us into the grate carrying place whitch is fore miles.

Saterday, October the 28th. This morning I rose wall and left our battows and took seven days provisions on our backs and went fore miles to the krick that leds to ShowDare8.

Sunday, October the 29th. This morning I rose wall and it snode but we marched ten miles and came to ShowDare --- - This is not the ShowDare Pond, for we have been lost and have travelled in the swamp.

Munday, October the 30th. This morning I rose wall and traveled 15 miles in the woods.

Tuesday, October the 31st. This morning I Rose wall and it was cold and snode. We travelled seven miles and found ShowDare River. Travelled 8 miles and stopt.

Wednesday November the 1st. This morning I rose wail and martched 20 miles. It snode and our provisions was almost gone.

Thursday, Novem-ber the 2nd. This mor-ning I rose wall and a fine day and sum of us martched off sune, and we travelled 24 miles and had News of provisions ahead, and we travelled one mile more and stopt and Eate all our provisions up.

FRIDAY, November the 3rd. We rose early and martched 12 miles and found cattel and got sum meate and ate hearty and it stormed fast. Then we went on about ten miles and I gave an Ingen a Pistareen9 to carry us down five miles and found houses. George gave me a lofe of bred and sum butter and ate hearty and than bilt a house. It snode and I had to sentry garde.

Saterday, November the 4th. This morning arose wall and Barns and I went on 14 miles and then we eate sum bred and butter and slep in a house.

Sunday, November the 5th. This morning arose wall and was very lame, but went about 2 miles. We see two Frenchmen in a bote and they carries us 19 miles and we gave them six Pistareens for it.

Munday, November the 6th. This morning arose wall and staid here till about 4 o'clock, and then martches about half a mile.

Tuesday, November the 7th. This morning I rose wall but very lame. We martched from Saint Maries 16 miles through the woods and it snode very hard.

Wednesday, November the 8th. This morning arose very onwell but martched aboute five miles and stopt.

Thursday, November the 9th. This morning very lame and staid all day to a white house.

Friday, November the 10th, 1775. This morning arose very sick and staid at the white house and it snode very fast all day. The Reglers fird cannon all day and we had news that our men took a Leftenent and a barge. Our Company martched off and left me for I was sick.

Saterday, November the 11th. This morning I rose very sick and lade out a Pistareen for butter and another for eggs. Staid hear all night.

Sunday, November the 12th. This morning I Rose, was better and martched 9 miles and found the Company.

Munday, November the 13th. This morning arose wall, and staid hear till night and then we went over the River Saint Lawrence and landed where Genrell Wolfe did. Then a barge came along and we fired at them anal kild three men.

Tuesday, November the 14th. This morning arose wall and had an Alarm, for the Reglers took one of our men. We martched up to the Fort and they fired at us.

Wednesday, November the 15th. This morning arose wall and went on garde down by the river.

Thursday, November the 16th. This morning came off garde. The ship fird at us and came very near. This day SARGENT Dixon was shot in the leg and died.

Friday, November the 17th. This morning I Rose wall but it is very cold. Saterday, November the 18th. This morning a Rose wall and went on garde at the Sentry GARDE.

Sunday, November the 19th. This morning came off garde and all the rest were gone, but George and I over took them. Martched 24 miles and went in my stocking feet and was very lame and cold.

Mundy, November the 20th. This morning I Rose wall and martched one mile and a half and found the Company.

Tuesday, November the 21st. This morning I Rose wall and got a pare of shoes and washed and George cut my hare and made sum pancakes. I lade out two Pistareens and a half for rum and eggs.

Wednesday, November the 22nd. This morning I Rose wall. Isaac, George, Febtor, to one shilling that I paid to Salem on the way out and to one shirt.

Thursday, November the 23rd. This morning I Rose wall but it snode. Sunday, November the 26th. This morning I Rose not very wall and John Wise and I went aboute two miles and I got three pints of rum and got sum Bred and milk and paid for it. This Day heard that Hail was daid


Friday, December the 1st. This morning aRose wall and we all slung our packs and martched over to the Captains and Major Meigs came and talkt to us. There was three vessels came down and we martched two miles to see GENERAL MONTGOMERY.


Tuesday, December the 5th. This morning I Rose wall and martched to the revue and then went agin to the other side of the krick and our mess went three or four miles and could not find no house. We loded our guns and at last found a house where we staid, and in the morning we drew cuts to know who should eate milk.

Wednesday, December the 6th. This morning I Rose walI and it snode. Went over to the Captains and there we plaid for sum wine, and then found a house to go into.

Thursdsay, December the 7th. This morning I Rose wall. Nothing strange happened today.

Friday, December the 8th. This morning I rose wall and went to the revue.

Saterday, December the 9th. This morning I rose wall and went aboute three miles and cald the Quarter Master to our Store ... and we bilt a battue and we have 26 guns.

Sunday, December the 10th. This morning not very wall and the Reglers fired all this morming.


Tuesday, December the 12th. This morning was on garde and our mess house burned and the Reglers fired...

Wednesday, December the 13th. This morning arose not very wall, but eate brekfurst of bred and milk, but was not wall. This nite eate a supper of turkey.

Thursday, December the 14th. This morning I rose not wall and I have got the lumbago bad, and this day there was a ball come through our brestwork and kild three men and wounded two more.

Friday, December the 15th. This morning arose not wall. Our men fird 16 candon and then sent in a flag of truce for them to resine, but they wont and our men went at it again. They have kild one man and wounded another.

Saterday, December the 16th. This morning arose not wall. A fine day. Last night an Indian was kild and today a soldier was kild and three of our cannon was dismounted. They fird all the while.

Sunday, December the 17th. This morning arose no better. A stormey day. This day passed and nothing done.


Friday, December the 22nd. This morning arose wall anal we had orders to fastn a hemlock bush on our caps.


Sunday, December the 24th. This morning I rose wall and this night we had a Sarmon Preacht by Mr. Spring and he took his text in the 2nd book of Kronnikels, the twenty second chapter and twenty 9 verse. "And the fear of God was on all the kingdoms of these countries when they heard that the Lord fought against the enemies of Israel."

Monday, December the 25th. This morning arose very poorly and had orders to proceed to General Montgomery's at five o'clock in the afternoon.

Tuesday, December the 26th. This morning arose sum better; We was asked who would skail the walls. There was 17 turned out.

Wednesday, December the 27th. This morning arose well and it snode, and we had orders to go into Quebeck and all praided, but it clered up and we did not go.


Saterday, DECEMBER THE 30th. This morning arose wall and last night Sargeant Singleton desarted to the Reglers. There they have been and fird cannon all night and all day.

Sunday, December the 3lst. Last night we went to skail the walls. General Montgomery was kild and all our people that got into the low town are took prisoners, Major Meigs came out on prole of honner.

Munday, January the 1st. This morning it was very stormy and we had to retreat. The Colonel10 is wounded.

Tuesday, January the 2d. Last night we was afraide that the Reglers wold come out and we lay on our arms all night, Major Meigs came out on parole.

Wednesday, JANUARY THE 3rd. This morning I rose wall. Leftenant Cooper is ded and William G_____. It is very warm and Sargeant Liman and Eleasir More is gone home.

Thursday, January the 4th. This morning I rose wall and it is very warm and rany. We heard that the Reglers was coming out.

Friday, Jamuary the 5th. This morning arose wall. Last night we heard that Joseph Goss was ded. It is very warm and raney. Major Meigs went into Quebeck.

Saterday, January the 6th. This morning arose wall sad it is very cold, but nothing happened today.

Sunday, January the 7th. This morning ARose wall. Today very pleasant and we are going to send the soldiers things in to them. There was a hundred men kild and wounded. Nathaniel Gutridge is ded.

Munday, January the 8th. This morning I rose wall. This day it snode and this day one George Hubbard of Bedford died with the small pox. Three French prisoners died. Borbo for one.

Tuesday, January the 9th. This morning ARose wall. It snode very hard all night and then cleared.

Wednesday, January the 10th. This morning ARose wall. It is very cold today and the old Flag o' Truce Died.

Thursday, January the 11th. This morning I Rose wall. It snode very hard and the old man was buried.

1 Sir Guy Carleton, afterwards Lord Dorchester (1724-1808), Governor of Quebec during the Montgomery-Arnold assault upon it, was an Irish officer in the English army, and first saw active service in the second siege of Louisbourg. He was wounded before Quebec in 1759, when in command of Wolfe's corps of Grenadiers. In 1772 he was raised to the rank of Major-General, and three years later was appointed Governor of Quebec. On the failure of the American invasion of Canada, Carleton issued from it and took possession of Crown Point. After a lengthened sojourn in England, he was appointed, in 1782, Commander-in-Chief in America, as successor to Sir Henry Clinton and pursued a conciliatory policy up to the evacuation of New York by the British troops. In 1786 he was created Baron Dorchester and re-appointed Governor of Quebec, a post he held almost continuously for ten years. On his final return to England, he was raised to the rank of General, but lived thenceforth in retirement until his death in 1808. Carleton, though a strict disciplinarian, as well as an able officer, was a man of humane conduct, as his kind treatment of American prisoners during the Revolutionary War and his attempts to check the excesses of the Indian auxiliaries, testify.

2 This historic fort, situated at the southern extremity of Lake Champlain, was built by the French in 1755; in 1758, the English were repulsed in an attack on it, and in the following year it was abandoned by the French. In the present campaign (1775), it was taken by American arms, but two years later it was recaptured by Burgoyne, dismantled on his surrender, and in 1780 reoccupied by the British. At the close of the war it was abandoned.

3 This fort, which came into the hands of the British in 1759, is situated on the west shore of Lake Champlain, about ninety miles north of Albany. It lies adjacent to the town of Ticonderoga, and is noted as the site of Fort Frederic, now in ruins, erected by the French in 1731. With its slender garrison, it was taken in May, 1775 by a detachment of our troops, under Seth Warner, forming part of the force with which Ethan Allen surprised Fort Ticonderoga.

4 Allen was put in irons and sent to England by General Prescott, to be tried for treason, because of his daring capture of Ticonderoga some months before. He was closely confined, and, it is said, was treated with great severity until the spring of 1778, when he was exchanged.

5 Instead of obeying, he returned to Cambridge with his division. He was tried by court-martial for this act and acquitted, since it had become evident to Enos that nothing but disaster awaited the expedition; but he was never fully restored to public favor.

6 Arnold, relying on bad maps, had guessed the distance at 180 miles - a journey of less than three weeks. Instead, his army traveled 350 miles in 46 days: a military march that ranks with the epics. The Kennebec, for all its rapids, was the easiest passage. Farther north along the Dead River and the Chaudi(re came the real test of manhood. One unit turned back and took the provisions of others with them. ["The Revolutionary War," National Geographic Society, Washington, D.C., 1967, p.68.]

7 Carleton and Montgomery had previously fought side by side in the French and Indian War, and the former sent out a detachment to search for the body of his old comrade. It was found, with his brother officers, half buried under snow-drifts. All were reverently brought within the city and given burial. Nearly half a century later, the remains of Montgomery were brought to New York, and they now rest under a beautiful monument in St. Paul's churchyard, in lower Broadway.

8 Chaudiere River.

9 Pistareen, a West Indian silver coin worth 20 cents.

10 Col. Benedict Arnold.

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